Question : Like cellular phone companies, satellite radio companies, and internet service providers...
Also, how do they know where to position the satellites? Do they ask the government? Where are political boundaries in subspace and space, if any? Is it getting crowded up there? Could one satellite steal information from another satellite? Could satellite information be stolen from earth as communications are transferred (such as bank acct. #s, passwords, usernames, addresses, social security #s..
Answer : There is probably a huge amount of information about this on the internet. However, I can make a few guesses about some of your equestions.
To get their satellites into orbit, companies use commercial or government rockets. The US, China, the European Union, Russia, and Japan are probably the main countries who have the capability of putting satellites into orbit.
I think that satellites overfly national boundaries all the time.
Information transferred to and from satellites of course can be stolen unless it is properly encrypted, etc.
I remember reading about incidents of international satellite saboutage.
There are many satellites in earth orbit currently, although some decay and are burned up in the atmosphere, and some are destroyed or sent off to burn up in the sun. There is also a lot of manmade debris orbiting the earth; thousands of pieces (see reference).
Satellite orbital launches cost from 50 to 400 million dollars (see reference).
Question : Need the equation for finding velocity of an artificial satellite in orbit about a given mass.
Answer : speed = square root of ( G x Mass / Radius )
G is 6.673 x 10^-11 N m^2 / kg^2
Mass is the mass of the central body. The satellite mass has to be much less, in order for this equation to work. Also, this is for a circular orbit, with a constant radius.
N = newtons = kg m / s^2
The units simplify to just m / s.
Question : does anyone know the average price of building, putting it into orbit, etc. of a weather satellite? do you think it is worth spending that amount of money for the information we get today and the amount of time it operates in space?
Answer : The last GOES Satellite that was sent to orbit cost about 2.1 Billion dollars (USD).
The next GOES Satellite to go up to space is estimated to cost us between 6 to 8 billion dollars.