Question : When electrons are moving in shells around the nucleus, then what are the s,p,d and f orbitals? And why are these not in circular shapes?
Answer : spd and f are letters that describe the orbital angular momentum of the electron.
In units of h-bar, s is zero, p is one, d is two, f is three, g is four, etc
Now as a whole, all of these are spherical. But for each value, l, of angular momentum, there are 2l+1 states that describe the z-component of angular momentum. They run from -l to l. Now although all the 2l+1 states put together are spherically symmetric, they each are not spherical--except in the case of the s orbitals, where l=0, so there's only one state, and it's spherically symmetric.
Question : tell me the defination for both atomic and ionic radii the distance between the center of the nucleus and outer most shell which has an electron is called atomic radii.
the distance between the center of the nucleus and outer most shell which has an electron cloud is called ionic radii.
is this is correct or not???
Answer : atomic radii is the radios of the atom when it's in neutral.
ionic radii is the radios of the atom when it losses or gains electron ( become an ion)
so for the very same element the number of electrons in atom differs than the number of electrons of the ion which might cause a change in the number of orbitals and the radios.
hope this helps
Question : the oder from lower to high energy orbital is this
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d .....
so i'm wondering, when you start to write the shell notation which one do you start filling FIRST the 4s or 3d?
because 3d has a higher energy level that 4s, however 3d is nearer to the nucleus than 4s
For those of you who think its the same thing, its not because this could mean the difference between a 3d^9, 4s^2 and 3d^10, 4s^1 (^ are the superscript) representing amount of electrons)
THERE SHOULD BE SOME KI..
Answer : der Aufbau (in German it means to 'build up') is the principle that describes the order that electron orbitals are filled. The shapes of the s, p, d, and f orbitals are strikingly different. While the s orbital is spherical, the others are not. So the energy levels of the orbitals and the order they are filled is not simply in order of some radius from the nucleus of the atom.
Edwin Schroedinger wrote some intersting solid trigonometry differencial equations to describe the shapes of those orbitals back in the 1930s.
the 4s orbital is filled before the 3d because it has a lower energy level.
By the way, most texts don't mention it but the order that the electron orbitals are filled is NOT always the same order that the electrons are lost when cations are formed. What this means is that transitional metals typically lose electrons from their s orbitals to form cations BEFORE they lose electrons from their d orbitals, even though the d orbital electrons were loaded in after the ..