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1.(a) What is the difference between Combinational Logic and Sequential Logic?

(b) What is the type of control unit in 8085 Microprocessor?

(c) What is the data transfer rate of PCI bus?

(d) Distinguish between microinstruction and nanoinstruction

(e) What is IEEE 754?

(f) What is the difference between real memory and virtual memory?

(g) What do you understand by internal interrupt?

2. (a)
Verify whether the expression given below is valid using algebraic method only. ab’ + bc’ + ca’ = a’b + b’c + c’a

Design a two bit comparator that compares two 2-bit values in whole, rather than one bit at a time. The circuit has inputs X1 X0 and Y1 Y0 , and outputs X > Y, X = Y, and X < Y

3. (a) Show the hardware including logic gates for the control function that implements the RTL statement xy1T0 + T1 + x1 yT

2 : A ← A +1

Write 8085 assembly language program to calculate the Fibonacci value f(n), where f(0) = f(1) = 1 and f(n) = f(n-1) + f(n-2) for n > 1 Assume that n > 1 and the result will be less than 256

4. (a) Describe the mechanism of an instruction fetching, decoding and execution
using flow chart?

(b) Describe the major hardware functional units of 8085 microprocessor with a
neat complete functional block diagram .

5. (a) Show how nine bit micro operation field in a micro instruction can be divided
into sub fields? Explain with an example

(b) What are the functions performed by an I/O interface? Explain with an example ?

6. (a) Compare and contrast isolated I/O and memory mapped I/O.

(b) Why does I/O interrupt make more efficient use of the CPU?


(a) Explain the need of the memory hierarchy?

(b) What is the associate memory and what kind of operation it is more suitable?

8. Write short notes on

(i) Signed Notation in Computer Arithmetic

(ii) Instruction formats.

(iii) DMA

iv) VHDL

9) Answer the following:

a) What is an algorithm?

b) Write any two data types in C with examples.

c) How are logical operators written in C?

d) What are bit wise operators in C?

e) Give an example to illustrate the concept of structures in C.

f) What is hash searching?

g) How do you declare an array of 10 pointers pointing to integers?

2. a) Write an algorithm for swapping two elements without using an extra temporary variable.

b) Write a C program to convert a given decimal number to binary.

3. a) What are the control structures in C? Give a n example each.

b) Write a C program to sort a set of n elements using bubble sort.

4. a) Declare a 12-element array of pointers to functions. Each function will accept two pointers to double-precision quantities as arguments and will return a pointer to a double-precision quantity.

b) Write a program to find the transpose of a given n x n matrix A. The matrix A should be declared using pointers. Your program should store the resultant in A only. No additional matrix be used.

5 a) Write a C Program to find the Kth smallest element of a given array.

b) Explain how your program works for finding the 4th smallest element of the following data: 11, 2, 9, 4, 2, 7, 3, 3, 11, 8, 14, 6.

6.a)What are command line arguments? Explain.

Write a program that reads a line of text from a data file character by character and displays the text on the screen.

7.a) Write a C program for hash searching using linear collision.

b) Illustrate the Program for the following data:10, 12, 20, 23, 27, 30, 31, 39, 42, 44, 45, 49, 53, 57, 60.

8.a) Write a program for Towers of Honoi problem using recursion.

b) Write a program to count the number of vowels in a given string.

9 a) State the axioms of probability

b) Explain confident intervals in estimation.

c) Explain the method of least squares.

d) Explain Principle of least square.

e) Explain Type I and II errors.

f) Explain Correlation Coefficient

g) Write applications of Queuing theory

10. a) State and prove Baye’s formula on conditional probability.

b) We are given three urns as follows:

Urn A contains 3 red and 5 white marbles
Urn B contains 2 red and 1 white marble
Urn C contains 2 red and 2 white marbles.
An urn is selected at random and a marble is drawn from the urn. If the
Marble is red, what is the probability that it came from urn A?

11. a) Define mathematical expectation of a random variable. Show that the expectations of the sum of two random variables is equal to the sum of their expectations.

Suppose that a pair of dice are tossed and let the random variable X denote the sum of the points. Find the expectation of X.

12 a) Define the mean to failure of a component. For aq series systems show that 0 < E(X) < min [ E(Xc )].

b) Derive Markov inequality. Hence or otherwise state and prove Chebychev inequality.

13. a) Find the moment generating function about origin of the normal distribution.

b) Prove that a linear combination of normal variate is also a normal variate.

14. a) Derive normal equations to fit y = a + bx by the method of least squares.

b) Fit a least squares parabola having the form y = a + bx + cx² to the
following data:
X : 1.2 1.8 3.1 4.9 5.7 7.1 8.6 9.8
Y : 4.5 5.9 7.0 7.8 7.2 6.8 4.5 2.7


1. Briefly answer the following questions:

a. Define `Abstract Data Type’ ? How are they used in program development?

b. Write the primitive operations of ADT queue.

c. Write the prefix and postfix equivalents to the infix expression A/B+C-D *(E+F).

d. Write the best, worst and average case time complexity estimates of Quick Sort algorithm.

e. What is an Almost Complete Binary Tree? Write an application that makes use of it.

f. Write the applications of depth first traversal of a graph

g. When does interpolation search performs better than binary search?

2. a. Assume that each element of an array ‘A’ stored in row-major order occupies four bytes of memory . If ‘A’ is declared as: int a [10][20][5]. And the address of the first element of ‘A’ is 2000, find the address of the array element A[5][12][4].

b. Write a C program to evaluate a given postfix expression using stack and explain it with an example.

3. a. Write a recursive function in C to find the nth Fibonacci number.

b. Write a non – recursive function for the above problem.

c. Compare the efficiencies of the above two functions.

4. a. Compare and contrast the ADTs Queue and Priority Queue.

b. Write a C function to concatenate two singly linked circular list without traversing either of them and explain it.

5. a. Discuss different ways of representing a binary tree and suggest an application for each of the representations.

b. Explain how the threads are used to simplify the traversal of a binary tree.

6. a. Construct a binary search tree to accommodate the given list of integers. 47,56,23,17,64,36,29,22

b. Find the in order, preorder and post order sequence of nodes of the above tree. Explain the process o f deletion of node ‘23’ from the above tree and draw the resultant tree.

7. Write a C function to arrange the elements of an array in ascending order using Radix sort algorithm and explain it with a suitable example.

8. a. Discuss the Dijkstra’s algorithm for finding the shortest paths from a source to all other vertices in a directed graph. What is its time complexity.

9. a) What is the difference in function between BALR and USING instructions?

b) Explain Allocation. c) Define Macro Instruction.

d) Differentiate in between pass and phase. e) Define Linkage Editor.

f) Define Compiler. g) Explain the importance of LESA.

g) Differentiate in between simple RELOCATABLE and complex

RELOCATABLE address constants.
i) Differentiate in between open subroutine and closed subroutine.
j) Explain the importance of RLD cards.

10 a) Explain the role of Base Register.

b) Explain the role of Index Register.

c) Differentiate in between USING and DROP PSEUDO op codes.

3. a) Give the design of single pass assembler.

b) Can we write an ALP without using USING OP CODE? How? what are the limitations.

11 .a) Give the design of single pass macro processor.

b) Explain the design of macro processor which can handle macro definitions within macros ?

12. a) Give the design part of Assembler corresponding to LTORG pseudo op code.

b) Give the design of Assembler corresponding to Extended MNEUMONICS.

c)Will the following divide 10 by 2? Justify.
L3,=f’ 10’
ST3, 700

13 a) Give the design of absolute loader.

b) Explain about Direct Linking Loader.

14 a) Explain BSS loader.

b) At what point in time of each of the following loading schemes perform binding?

i. DLL, ii. BSS loader, iii. Dynamic binder.

iv. Dynamic linking loader, v. Overlay, vi. Editor

15 a) Explain Lexical Analysis in detail

b) Differentiate between TDP & BUP

16) Discuss the following

a) Conversion rules and casts in C++

b) Static and Const member functions

c) Template Parameters

d) Copy Constructor

17 a) Outline the underlying concepts of Object Oriented programming

b) Write a class description for complex numbers. Write methods for addition and subtraction.

18 a) What are the function calling mechanisms supported by C++. Explain them with examples

b) Outline with a suitable C++ program, the concept of two classes having a common friend function.

19 a) What are the types of Inheritances?

b) Discuss the concept of constructors under inheritance using relevant examples.

20 a) What is dynamic binding? Outline this concept through a virtual destructor.

b) Explain with an example how to overload postfix(++) operator

21 a) What are the different types of containers supported by C++ standard library.

b) Discuss how the file I/O is handled in C++

22 a) Discuss the exception handling mechanism in C++

b) Using templates, write a generic version of bubble sort, complete with assertion. Use a random number generator to generate test data.

23  With a relevant example, explain the design of a project using UML

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