# MCA SEM 1 & 2 NOTES & Q-PAPERS FREE

**MCA 1SEM QUESTIONS.
**

**1.(a)** What is the difference between Combinational Logic and Sequential Logic?

**(b**) What is the type of control unit in 8085 Microprocessor?

**(c)** What is the data transfer rate of PCI bus?

**(d)** Distinguish between microinstruction and nanoinstruction

**(e)** What is IEEE 754?

**(f)** What is the difference between real memory and virtual memory?

**(g)** What do you understand by internal interrupt?

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2. (a)** Verify whether the expression given below is valid using algebraic method only. ab’ + bc’ + ca’ = a’b + b’c + c’a

**
(b)** Design a two bit comparator that compares two 2-bit values in whole, rather than one bit at a time. The circuit has inputs X1 X0 and Y1 Y0 , and outputs X > Y, X = Y, and X < Y

**3. (a)** Show the hardware including logic gates for the control function that implements the RTL statement xy1T0 + T1 + x1 yT

2 : A ← A +1

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(b)** Write 8085 assembly language program to calculate the Fibonacci value f(n), where f(0) = f(1) = 1 and f(n) = f(n-1) + f(n-2) for n > 1 Assume that n > 1 and the result will be less than 256

**4. (a)** Describe the mechanism of an instruction fetching, decoding and execution

using flow chart?

**(b)** Describe the major hardware functional units of 8085 microprocessor with a

neat complete functional block diagram .

**5. (a)** Show how nine bit micro operation field in a micro instruction can be divided

into sub fields? Explain with an example

**(b)** What are the functions performed by an I/O interface? Explain with an example ?

**6. (a)** Compare and contrast isolated I/O and memory mapped I/O.

**(b)** Why does I/O interrupt make more efficient use of the CPU?

7.

**(a)** Explain the need of the memory hierarchy?

**(b)** What is the associate memory and what kind of operation it is more suitable?

**8.** Write short notes on

**(i)** Signed Notation in Computer Arithmetic

**(ii)** Instruction formats.

**(iii)** DMA

**iv) **VHDL

**9)** Answer the following:

**a)** What is an algorithm?

**b)** Write any two data types in C with examples.

**c) **How are logical operators written in C?

**d) **What are bit wise operators in C?

**e)** Give an example to illustrate the concept of structures in C.

**f)** What is hash searching?

**g) **How do you declare an array of 10 pointers pointing to integers?

**2. a)** Write an algorithm for swapping two elements without using an extra temporary variable.

**b)** Write a C program to convert a given decimal number to binary.

**3. a) **What are the control structures in C? Give a n example each.

**b)** Write a C program to sort a set of n elements using bubble sort.

**4. a)** Declare a 12-element array of pointers to functions. Each function will accept two pointers to double-precision quantities as arguments and will return a pointer to a double-precision quantity.

**b)** Write a program to find the transpose of a given n x n matrix A. The matrix A should be declared using pointers. Your program should store the resultant in A only. No additional matrix be used.

**5 a) **Write a C Program to find the Kth smallest element of a given array.

**b)** Explain how your program works for finding the 4th smallest element of the following data: 11, 2, 9, 4, 2, 7, 3, 3, 11, 8, 14, 6.

**6.a)**What are command line arguments? Explain.

**
b) **Write a program that reads a line of text from a data file character by character and displays the text on the screen.

**7.a)** Write a C program for hash searching using linear collision.

**b)** Illustrate the Program for the following data:10, 12, 20, 23, 27, 30, 31, 39, 42, 44, 45, 49, 53, 57, 60.

**8.a)** Write a program for Towers of Honoi problem using recursion.

**b)** Write a program to count the number of vowels in a given string.

**9 a)** State the axioms of probability

**b**) Explain confident intervals in estimation.

**c)** Explain the method of least squares.

**d)** Explain Principle of least square.

**e)** Explain Type I and II errors.

**f)** Explain Correlation Coefficient

**g)** Write applications of Queuing theory

**10. a)** State and prove Baye’s formula on conditional probability.

**b)** We are given three urns as follows:

Urn A contains 3 red and 5 white marbles

Urn B contains 2 red and 1 white marble

Urn C contains 2 red and 2 white marbles.

An urn is selected at random and a marble is drawn from the urn. If the

Marble is red, what is the probability that it came from urn A?

**11. a)** Define mathematical expectation of a random variable. Show that the expectations of the sum of two random variables is equal to the sum of their expectations.

**
b)** Suppose that a pair of dice are tossed and let the random variable X denote the sum of the points. Find the expectation of X.

**12 a)** Define the mean to failure of a component. For aq series systems show that 0 < E(X) < min [ E(Xc )].

**b)** Derive Markov inequality. Hence or otherwise state and prove Chebychev inequality.

**13. a)** Find the moment generating function about origin of the normal distribution.

**b) **Prove that a linear combination of normal variate is also a normal variate.

**14. a) **Derive normal equations to fit y = a + bx by the method of least squares.

**b)** Fit a least squares parabola having the form y = a + bx + cx² to the

following data:

X : 1.2 1.8 3.1 4.9 5.7 7.1 8.6 9.8

Y : 4.5 5.9 7.0 7.8 7.2 6.8 4.5 2.7

**MCA 2nd SEM QUESTIONS
**

**1.** Briefly answer the following questions:

**a**. Define `Abstract Data Type’ ? How are they used in program development?

**b**. Write the primitive operations of ADT queue.

**c.** Write the prefix and postfix equivalents to the infix expression A/B+C-D *(E+F).

**d.** Write the best, worst and average case time complexity estimates of Quick Sort algorithm.

**e.** What is an Almost Complete Binary Tree? Write an application that makes use of it.

**f**. Write the applications of depth first traversal of a graph

.

**g.** When does interpolation search performs better than binary search?

**2. a**. Assume that each element of an array ‘A’ stored in row-major order occupies four bytes of memory . If ‘A’ is declared as: int a [10][20][5]. And the address of the first element of ‘A’ is 2000, find the address of the array element A[5][12][4].

**b.** Write a C program to evaluate a given postfix expression using stack and explain it with an example.

**3. a**. Write a recursive function in C to find the nth Fibonacci number.

**b.** Write a non – recursive function for the above problem.

**c.** Compare the efficiencies of the above two functions.

**4. a.** Compare and contrast the ADTs Queue and Priority Queue.

**b.** Write a C function to concatenate two singly linked circular list without traversing either of them and explain it.

**5. a.** Discuss different ways of representing a binary tree and suggest an application for each of the representations.

**b**. Explain how the threads are used to simplify the traversal of a binary tree.

**6. a.** Construct a binary search tree to accommodate the given list of integers. 47,56,23,17,64,36,29,22

**b**. Find the in order, preorder and post order sequence of nodes of the above tree. Explain the process o f deletion of node ‘23’ from the above tree and draw the resultant tree.

**7.** Write a C function to arrange the elements of an array in ascending order using Radix sort algorithm and explain it with a suitable example.

**8. a**. Discuss the Dijkstra’s algorithm for finding the shortest paths from a source to all other vertices in a directed graph. What is its time complexity.

**9. a) **What is the difference in function between BALR and USING instructions?

**b)** Explain Allocation. c) Define Macro Instruction.

**d)** Differentiate in between pass and phase. e) Define Linkage Editor.

**f)** Define Compiler. g) Explain the importance of LESA.

**g)** Differentiate in between simple RELOCATABLE and complex

RELOCATABLE address constants.

**i)** Differentiate in between open subroutine and closed subroutine.

**j)** Explain the importance of RLD cards.

**10 a)** Explain the role of Base Register.

**b)** Explain the role of Index Register.

**c)** Differentiate in between USING and DROP PSEUDO op codes.

**3. a)** Give the design of single pass assembler.

**b)** Can we write an ALP without using USING OP CODE? How? what are the limitations.

**11 .a**) Give the design of single pass macro processor.

**b)** Explain the design of macro processor which can handle macro definitions within macros ?

**12. a)** Give the design part of Assembler corresponding to LTORG pseudo op code.

**b**) Give the design of Assembler corresponding to Extended MNEUMONICS.

c)Will the following divide 10 by 2? Justify.

L3,=f’ 10’

D2,=f’2’

ST3, 700

**13 a)** Give the design of absolute loader.

**b) **Explain about Direct Linking Loader.

**14 a)** Explain BSS loader.

**b)** At what point in time of each of the following loading schemes perform binding?

i. DLL, ii. BSS loader, iii. Dynamic binder.

iv. Dynamic linking loader, v. Overlay, vi. Editor

**15 a)** Explain Lexical Analysis in detail

**b)** Differentiate between TDP & BUP

**16) **Discuss the following

**a) **Conversion rules and casts in C++

**b)** Static and Const member functions

**c) **Template Parameters

**d) **Copy Constructor

**17 a)** Outline the underlying concepts of Object Oriented programming

**b) **Write a class description for complex numbers. Write methods for addition and subtraction.

**18 a) **What are the function calling mechanisms supported by C++. Explain them with examples

**b**) Outline with a suitable C++ program, the concept of two classes having a common friend function.

**19 a)** What are the types of Inheritances?

**b)** Discuss the concept of constructors under inheritance using relevant examples.

**20 a**) What is dynamic binding? Outline this concept through a virtual destructor.

**b)** Explain with an example how to overload postfix(++) operator

**21 a)** What are the different types of containers supported by C++ standard library.

**b)** Discuss how the file I/O is handled in C++

**22 a)** Discuss the exception handling mechanism in C++

**b)** Using templates, write a generic version of bubble sort, complete with assertion. Use a random number generator to generate test data.

**23 ** With a relevant example, explain the design of a project using UML