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Anna University Question Bank for ECE, CSE, IT, EEE, MBA, MCA, Biomedical

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CS1203-SYSTEM SOFTWARE

UNIT I-INTRODUCTION

1. Define system software?

It consists of variety of programs that supports the operation of the computer. This software makes it possible for the user to focus on the other problems to be solved without needing to know how the machine works internally. Eg: operating system, assembler, and loader.

2. Give some applications of operating system?

• To make the computer easier to use
• to manage the resources in computer
• process management
• data and memory management
• to provide security to the user.
Operating system acts as an interface between the user and the system
Eg: windows, linux, unix, dos

3. Define compiler and interpreter?

Compiler is a set of program which converts the whole high level language program to machine language program. Interpreter is a set of programs which converts high level language program to machine language program line by line.

4. Define loader?

Loader is a set of program that loads the machine language translated by the translator into the main memory and makes it ready for execution

5. What is the need of MAR register?

MAR (memory address register) is used to store the address of the memory from which the data is to be read or to which the data is to be written.

6. Draw SS instruction format. opcode L B1 D1 B2 D2 0 7 8 15 16 19 20 31 32 35 36 47 It is a 6 byte instruction used to move L+I bytes data from the storage location1 to the storage location2?

Storage location1 = D1+[B1]
Storage location2 = D2+[B2]
Eg: MOV 60,400(3),500(4)

7. Give any two differences between base relative addressing and program counter relative addressing used in SIC/XE. Base relative addressing PC relative addressing a Target address is calculated using the formula?

Target address = Displacement + [B]
B-base register
Here The target address is calculated using the formula
Target address = Displacement + [PC]
PC-program counter Displacement lies between 0 to 4095 Displacement lies between –2048 to 2047

8. Define indirect addressing In the case of immediate addressing the operand field gives the memory location. The word from the given address is fetched and it gives the address of the operand?

Here the second operand is given in indirect addressing mode.First the word in memory location 600 is fetched and which will give the address of the operand.

9. Define immediate addressing?

In this addressing mode the operand value is given directly. There is no need to refer memory. The immediate addressing is indicated by the prefix ‘#’. Eg: ADD #5
In this instruction one operand is in accumulator and the second operand is a immediate value the value 5 is directly added with the accumulator content and the result is stored in accumulator.

UNIT II-ASSEMBLERS

1. Define the basic functions of assembler?

Translating mnemonic operation codes to their machine language equivalents.
Assigning machine addresses to symbolic labels used by the programmer.

2. What is meant by assembler directives? Give example?

These are the statements that are not translated into machine instructions, but they provide instructions to assembler itself. Example START, END, BYTE, WORD, RESW and RESB

3. What is forward references? It is a reference to a label that is defined later in a program?

Consider the statement
10 1000 STL RETADR
. . . .
. . . .
80 1036 RETADR RESW 1
The first instruction contains a forward reference RETADR. If we attempt to translate the program line by line, we will unable to process the statement in line10 because we do not know the address that will be assigned to RETADR .The address is assigned later(in line 80) in the program.

4. What are the three different records used in object program?

The header record, text record and the end record are the three different records used in object program. The header record contains the program name, starting address and length of the program. Text record contains the translated instructions and data of the program.
End record marks the end of the object program and specifies the address in the program where execution is to begin.

5.What is the need of SYMTAB (symbol table) in assembler?

The symbol table includes the name and value for each symbol in the source program,together
with flags to indicate error conditions.Some times it may contains details about the data area.
SYMTAB is usually organized as a hash table for efficiency of insertion and retrieval.

6. What is the need of OPTAB (operation code table) in assembler?

The operation code table contains the mnemonic operation code and its machine language equivalent. Some assemblers it may also contain information about instruction format and length. OPTAB is usually organized as a hash table, with mnemonic operation code as the key.

7.What are the symbol defining statements generally used in assemblers?

‘EQU’-it allows the programmer to define symbols and specify their values directly. The general format is symbol EQU value
‘ORG’-it is used to indirectly assign values to symbols. When this statement is encountered the assembler resets its location counter to the specified value. The general format is ORG value in the above two statements value is a constant or an expression involving constants and previously defined symbols.

8. Define relocatable program?

An object program that contains the information necessary to perform required modification in the object code depends on the starting location of the program during load time is known as relocatable program.

9. Differentiate absolute expression and relative expression?

If the result of the expression is an absolute value (constant) then it is known as absolute expression.,
Eg : BUFEND – BUFFER
If the result of the expression is relative to the beginning of the program then it is known as relative expression label on instructions and data areas and references to the location counter values are relative terms.
Eg: BUFEND + BUFFER

10. Write the steps required to translate the source program to object program?

• Convert mnemonic operation codes to their machine language equivalents.
• Convert symbolic operands to their equivalent machine addresses
• Build the machine instruction in the proper format.
• Convert the data constants specified in the source program into their internal machine representation
• Write the object program and assembly listing.

11.What is the use of the variable LOCCTR(location counter) in assembler?

This variable is used to assign addresses to the symbols. LOCCTR is initialized to the beginning address specified in the START statement. After each source statement is processed the length of the assembled instruction or data area to be generated is added to LOCCTR and hence whenever we reach a label in the source program the current value of LOCCTR gives the address associated with the label.

12. Define load and go assembler?

One pass assembler that generates their object code in memory for immediate execution is known as load and go assembler. Here no object programmer is written out and hence no need for loader.

13.What are the two different types of jump statements used in MASM assembler?

• Near jump A near jump is a jump to a target in the same segment and it is assembled by using a current code segment CS.
• Far jump A far jump is a jump to a target in a different code segment and it is assembled by using different segment registers

14.What are the use of base register table in AIX assembler?

A base register table is used to remember which of the general purpose registers are currently available as base registers and also the base addresses they contain. USING statement causes entry to the table and DROP statement removes the corresponding table entry.

16.Define modification record and give its format?

This record contains the information about the modification in the object code during program relocation the general format is Col 2-7 starting location of the address field to be modified relative to the beginning of the program Col 8-9 length of the address field to be modified in half bytes.

17. Write down the pass  numbers (PASS 1/ PASS 2) of the following activities that occur in a two pass assembler?
a. Object code generation
b. Literals added to literal table
c. Listing printed
d. Address location of local symbols
Answer:
a. Object code generation - PASS 2
b. Literals added to literal table – PASS 1
c. Listing printed – PASS2
d. Address location of local symbols – PASS1

18. What is meant by machine independent assembler features?

The assembler features that does not depends upon the machine architecture are known as machine independent assembler features. Eg: program blocks,Literals.

19. How the register to register instructions are translated in assembler?

In the case of register to register instructions the operand field contains the register name. During the translation first the object code is converted into its corresponding machine language equivalent with the help of OPTAB. Then the SYMTAB is searched for the numeric equivalent of register and that value is inserted into the operand field. Eg: 125 1036 RDREC CLEAR X B410, B4-macine equivalent of the opcode CLEAR, 10-numeric equivalent of the register X.

20. What is meant by external references?

Assembler program can be divided into many sections known as control sections and each control section can be loaded and relocated independently of the others. If the instruction in one control section need to refer instruction or data in another control section .the assembler is unable to process these references in normal way. Such references between controls are called external references.

21. Define control section?

A control section is a part of the program that maintains its identity after assembly; each control section can be loaded and relocated independently of the others.
Control sections are most often used for subroutines. The major benefit of using control sections is to increase flexibility.

22. What is the difference between the assembler directive EXTREF and EXTDEF?

EXTDEF names external symbols that are defined in a particular control section
and may be used by other sections.
EXTREF names external symbols that are referred in a particular control section and defined in another control section.

23. Give the general format of defines record?

This record gives information about external symbols that are defined in a particular control section. The format is
Col 1 D
Col 2-7 name of external symbol defined in this control section
Col 8-13 relative address of the symbol with in this control section
Col 14-73 name and relative address for other external symbols.

24. Give the use of assembler directive CSECT and USE?

CSECT - used to divide the program into many control sections USE – used to divide the program in to many blocks called program blocks

25.What is the use of the assembler directive START?

The assembler directive START gives the name and starting address of the program. The format is PN START 1000
Here PN –name of the program 1000-starting address of the program.

UNIT III (LOADERS AND LINKERS)

1.What are the basic functions of loaders?

Loading – brings the object program into memory for execution

Relocation – modifies the object program so that it can be loaded at an address different from the location originally specified

Linking – combines two or more separate object programs and also supplies the information needed to reference them.

2.Define absolute loader?

The loader, which is used only for loading, is known as absolute loader.
e.g. Bootstrap loader

3.What is meant by bootstrap loader?

This is a special type of absolute loader which loads the first program to be run by the computer. (usually an operating system)

4.What are relative (relocative) loaders?

Loaders that allow for program relocation are called relocating (relocative ) loaders.

5. What is the use of modification record?

Modification record is used for program relocation. Each modification record specifies the starting address and the length of the field whose value is to be altered and also describes the modification to be performed.

6.What are the 2 different techniques used for relocation?

Modification record method and relocation bit method.

7. Relocation bit method?

If the relocation bit corresponding to a word of object code is set to 1, the program’s starting address is to be added to this word when the program is relocated. Bit value 0 indicates no modification is required.

8.Define bit mask?

The relocation bits are gathered together following the length indicator in each text record and which is called as bit mask.For e.g. the bit mask FFC(111111111100) specifies that the first 10 words of object code are to be modified during relocation.

9.What is the need of ESTAB?

It is used to store the name and address of the each external symbol. It also indicates in which control section the symbol is defined.

10. What is the use of the variable PROGADDR?

It gives the beginning address in memory where the linked program is to be loaded. The starting address is obtained from the operating system.

11. Write the two passes of a linking loader?

Pass1: assigns address to all external symbols
Pass2: it performs actual loading, relocation and linking.

12. Define automatic library search?

In many linking loaders the subroutines called by the program being loaded are automatically fetched from the library, linked with the main program and loaded. This feature is referred to as automatic library search.

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